- Charles E. Little
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- Conservation tillage
- Norman Borlaug: humanitarian hero or menace to society?
According to Little, the idea of linking greenways together, thus creating a nationwide system of greenways, has become at present an integral component of the movement. Linkage, Little notes, is an important concept to greenway advocates because of its potential to take local grass-roots efforts to a higher level. These advocates believe that the creation of trails and open spaces connecting towns, cities, and parks from one end of the country to the other will eventually build a truly cohesive community, offering both ecological and social benefits for all.
Finally, in the closing chapters of his book, Little pragmatically outlines and discusses the step-by-step process of developing greenways, as well as the overarching theme of the greenways imperative: to raise environmental consciousness. The first series of the collection, called Chapter Files, contains reference material and drafts of chapters for Greenways for America.
A copy of Little's bibliographic data base search for articles on greenways, as well as the various greenway maps included in the book, are also housed here. The second series, Project Files, consists of professional correspondence, newspapers articles, essays, studies, reports, surveys, design projects, maps, plans, proposals, brochures, flyers, pamphlets, assessments, newsletters, magazine articles, and journals that Little amassed in order to depict the various greenway projects across America.
The third series, Reference Files, consists of general reference material, such as reports, foundation lists, magazines, brochures, essays, articles, conference programs, and newsletters. These papers contain information relating to local, state, and national organizations and programs. Reference Files also contains correspondence pertaining to the progression of the greenway projects, and information on related conservation and environmental interest groups. These include several drafts of the chapters in Greenways for America , with comments and corrections from Little's colleagues.
This series also contains material that Little referred to in order to write the book, such as drawings, essays, reports, maps, Little's notes and outlines, information on the Olmsted Historic Landscape Act, a master list of the Olmsted Firm's Design Projects, , professional correspondence, articles, newsletters, various publications, pamphlets, plans, manuals, reports, press releases, conference programs, court cases, brochures, business cards, journals, fact sheets, studies, and a Land Trust manual. Maps of the various greenways featured in the book, as well as a copy of Little's bibliographic data base search, are housed in this series.
The chapters are arranged in chronological order. Placement of other papers in this series reflects subject matter arrangement e. Note: chapter arrangement corresponds with how Little numbered the chapters in the final version of his book. Information pertaining to the various greenway projects that Little researched, visited, and outlined in his book is included here.
- Los Yoga Sutras de Patanjali (Spanish Edition).
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- Reward Yourself!
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- Alternative agriculture?
As outlined in the Introduction of Greenways for America , Little identifies five major types of greenways. They are: 1. Types of material housed here include: plans, reports, studies, surveys, assessments, maps, professional correspondence, business cards, newsletters, transcribed interviews with greenway developers and advocates, Little's notes taken while visiting greenways throughout the United States, Little's greenway project surveys, brochures, pamphlets, flyers, a masters thesis, press releases, guides, and other publications.
Several newspaper, magazine, and journal articles are also located in this series. This series is arranged alphabetically, according to the state that the greenway is located in, followed by the name of the greenway project. Two photographs of Charles E.
Charles E. Little
Little are located in the folder labeled "Oconee River Greenway, Georgia" in box 8. Also, two copies of greenway bylaws are located in folders labeled "Yakima Greenway, Washington", and "Platte River Greenway, Wyoming" in box Reference Files. General reference information is housed here. Included in this series is an extensive list of national, regional, and state foundations, all potential funding sources for greenway projects. This guide contains information on greenway policies, development procedures, and case studies. General reference material includes information on national, regional, and state organizations and agencies.
Such materials include lists, brochures, studies, essays, plans, newspaper articles, professional correspondence, newsletters, reports, flyers, and a U. Army Corps of Engineers list. A list of greenway-related organizations, such as the American Society of Landscape Architects, the Nature Conservancy, the National Institute for Urban Wildlife, and the Walkways Center, which includes addresses and telephone numbers, is also located in this series.
This series is arranged alphabetically, with general reference material placed at the end of the series. The Report of the President's Commission. Covelo, California: Island Press, Diamant, Rolf, J.
Earthlight Books, Independent bookstore in Walla Walla, Washington Since
A Citizen's Guide to River Conservation. Washington, D. Diamond Henry L. Houle, Marcy Cottrell. Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, Land Trust Exchange. Alexandria, Virginia: Mackintosh, Gay, ed. Preserving Communities and Corridors. Shoemaker, Joe, with Leonard A. Returning the Platte to the People. Simpson, Jeffrey. Stokes, Samuel N. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, Environmental Protection Agency. Government Printing Office, Whatever Befalls the Earth Flournoy, Jr. Winter freezing and thawing will generally break down clods.
Many tillage operations are designed to loosen and homogenize soil—increase macroporosity and structural uniformity—within the zone of tillage, but some tillage operations are intended to shape or firm soil. Some of the effects of tillage are intentional—see the tillage objectives listed in Section V for example—whereas other effects are unintentional, such as the formation of a plowpan, increased susceptibility to compaction, and erosion.
Moldboard and disk plows invert the soil in a plow layer, resulting in the burial of most crop residues. Aggressive tine tools—such as chisel plows, rippers, and subsoilers—fracture, but do not invert soil and retain more residue cover. Aggressive PTO-powered tools such as spaders and rotary tillers can be used for primary tillage.
An acceptable seed bed can sometimes be prepared in only one pass. Powered harrows, such as rotovators, rod weeders, and reciprocating harrows, are also used for seed bed preparation and can accomplish more in one pass than draft tools. Soil may be thrown into the row.
- Le Conte de deux cités - Paris et Londres en 1793 - Le Marquis de Saint-Évremont (Illustré et Annoté) (French Edition);
- Womans Trials Or, Tales and Sketches from the Life around Us?
- Angstentstehung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Angsttheorie von Lazarus (German Edition).
- Charles E. Little.
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Shields are sometimes used to prevent burial of the crop. Blind cultivation is mostly used preemergent or shortly after the emergence of wide row crops, but is also sometimes used in narrow row or broadcast crops. Bedshapers form vegetable beds, often 6 to 8 inches high, with pairs of heavy discs.
Planters are used to plant wide rows, usually 20 to 40 inches 50 to cm ; seed is singulated. Drills are used to plant rows that are close together, usually 6 to 10 inches apart 15 to 30 cm ; seed flow rate is controlled but seed is not singulated. Mowers and flail choppers are used to control standing biomass by cutting it into pieces small enough to distribute as mulch or incorporate with primary tillage.
Chain harrows can be used to spread out residues and manure, incorporate seed, and level the soil surface. On the positive side, tillage has been part of most agricultural systems throughout history because tillage can be used to achieve many agronomic objectives.
No-till: Making it work. Government of Ontario, Canada. To get the most from any tillage operation, be clear about the purpose. Before you till, make sure to:. Many organic farmers use more tillage operations than their conventional neighbors. This includes the number of trips across the field and the diversity of tillage operations.
Norman Borlaug: humanitarian hero or menace to society?
Farmers moving through a multicrop rotation will use different techniques based on crop needs. Small direct-seeded crops call for more aggressive secondary tillage and a fine seedbed than do transplanted crops. Multiple cultivations are desirable before planting broadcast or blanket-seeded crops that cannot be mechanically weeded after crop emergence, whereas crops seeded in rows are amenable to postemergence cultivation, mulching, and strip tillage. Typically, primary tillage operations are determined by the sequence of crops and desired crop planting dates.
Before farmers prepare the seedbed they must first kill or incorporate any cover crops, green manures, or amendments. The timing and types of secondary tillage operations used are determined by weed pressure, climate conditions, field status, and crop characteristics. Interest in conservation practices that skip whole-field, preplant tillage, and that substitute mulch or surface residues for weed control, is growing. These techniques are best suited for large-seeded and transplanted crops. Moving from a mulched crop to one that requires a clean seedbed can be difficult in some situations.
This series of photographs was taken on a vegetable farm in Illinois after a heavy rain. A spader had been used one month prior to incorporate a rye cover crop. A flamer will be used 1 — 2 weeks later before lettuce is transplanted into the bed b. Hand weeding may be called for before the crop shades the bed b, c if weed pressure is high.
If weed control is adequate, then lettuce can be cut for harvest and allowed to regrow for a second cutting d. Figure credit: Michelle Wander, University of Illinois. Acres U. Very readable comprehensive guide to ecological farming by a successful organic farmer, consultant, and founder of Midwest BioAg. Chapter 17 discusses tillage specifically. Zimmer recommends the use of rotary tillers to shallowly incorporate green manures.
Building soils for better crops, 3rd ed.
Magdoff and H. Van Es. Building soils for better crops. Conservation technology information center [Online]. The CTIC website provides access to Partners a quarterly publication discussing conservation tillage and results of the National Crop Residue Management Survey annual county-by-county tillage practice statistics.